During the George W. Bush and Obama administrations, the United States helped secure digital freedoms for people living in authoritarian states. As Barack Obama noted, the most consequential misinformation campaign in modern history was «not particularly sophisticated-this was not some elaborate, complicated espionage scheme.» Russia used a simple phishing attack and a blunt and relatively limited social-media strategy to disrupt the legitimacy of the 2016 election and wreak still-ongoing havoc on the American political system. But the basic approach to identifying and redressing speech judged to be misinformation or to present an imminent risk of physical harm «hasn’t changed,» according to Monika Bickert, Facebook’s head of global policy management. As it has done with Russian misinformation, Facebook will notify users when articles that they have «liked» are later deemed to have included health-related misinformation. Users can tell when one of you is not enjoying something. There are different ways to relax and have fun, and lice sex, freeprivatesexcam.com, chatting with other people is one of those exciting thing to do.

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As surprising as it may sound, digital surveillance and speech control in the United States already show many similarities to what one finds in authoritarian states such as China. China and other authoritarian states became adept at reverse engineering internet architecture to enhance official control over digital networks in their countries and thus over their populations. In the great debate of the past two decades about freedom versus control of the network, China was largely right and the United States was largely wrong. China quickly became worried about unregulated digital speech-both as a threat to the Communist Party’s control and to the domestic social order more generally. The U.S. government’s domestic surveillance is legally constrained, especially compared with what authoritarian states do. This approach assumed that authoritarian states would crumble in the face of digital networks that seemed to have American constitutional values built into them. In 2018, Congress amended the previously untouchable Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act to subject the platforms to the same liability that nondigital outlets face for enabling illegal sex trafficking. In part, this was due to the legal immunity that platforms enjoyed under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act. Additional amendments to Section 230 are now in the offing, as are various other threats to regulate digital speech.

The result a decade later is that most of our online speech now occurs in closely monitored playpens where many tens of thousands of human censors review flagged content to ensure compliance with ever-lengthier and more detailed «community standards» (or some equivalent). Facebook is using computer algorithms more aggressively, mainly because concerns about the privacy of users prevent human censors from working on these issues from home during forced isolation. More and more, this human monitoring and censorship is supported-or replaced-by sophisticated computer algorithms. And in recent years, the American public has grown fearful of ubiquitous digital monitoring and has been reeling from the disruptive social effects of digital networks. Significant monitoring and speech control are inevitable components of a mature and flourishing internet, and governments must play a large role in these practices to ensure that the internet is compatible with a society’s norms and values. This role, she claims, included inviting large numbers of women, including prostitutes, to attend ‘pamper parties’ where he would ‘get a good look at them and select those whom he would pay for sex’. Against this background, the tech firms’ downgrading and outright censorship of speech related to COVID-19 are not large steps.